Targeted Drug Delivery
Universal docking systems (“carts”) for targeted drug delivery
BioPact has developed specific and universal drug carriers, “carts”, covalently bonded to our discrete carbon nanotubes, Medical Grade MOLECULAR REBAR®(MGMR®). Example of a 3D reconstruction of a specific peptide “cart” for nicotine is shown. With these “carts”, we are able to conjugate MGMR with targeting proteins and virtually every drug size and type for targeted drug delivery.
Room temperature filling of MGMR for reduced toxicity and extended release
MGMR’s hollow center can be filled to capacity in as little as 60 minutes at or below room temperature (20°C). We have successfully filled our CNTs with small molecule and large molecule drugs at room temperature.
MGMR vs Other Nano-Delivery Options
MGMR can be targeted to bone, and in early studies, the MGMR and bone appear to have a potentially beneficial interaction post-bonding. This exciting discovery combined with other known features of MGMR opens up the door to study MGMR as a tissue and bone repair/scaffolding agent. In addition, MGMR could be used to deliver various therapeutics to the regeneration site.
MGMR naturally penetrates the cell and localizes in the nucleus, unlocking the potential to deliver genetic material directly to target cells.
MGMR can bond with photo fluorescence for tracking and imaging in diagnostic applications, and MGMR’s physical properties make it an excellent candidate to use in the latest generation of biosensors.
Devices and Medical Materials
MGMR is strong, lightweight, flexible and conductive, making it an ideal candidate for improvement of all variety of medical materials (e.g. surgical screws, plates, rods, bio-devices). Combine this with MGMR’s other potential uses, in drug delivery and biosensors, and the potential to impact a wide array of medical materials.
Limitless Medical Applications
MGMR can be customized to enable limitless medical applications in virtually every field of medicine: drug delivery, cancer, neurological disease, wound care, devices, diagnostics, stem cell, genomics, bone growth and repair, tissue regeneration, neural regeneration, bio-sensors, 3-D printing, prosthetics and orthopedics, to name a few.
Scientific Achievements Using Traditional CNT's
Research using traditional CNTs in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, and numerous cancers demonstrates the future of engineering nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery to cells and tissues. With the introduction of MGMR, we can now apply this technology safely and more effectively to enable research in developing new drug delivery mechanisms. The following are a few examples.
CNTs engineered as a nano-carrier for siRNA and drug delivery into pancreatic cancer cells. 
Brain Cancer (eg, GBM)
Brain Cancer (eg, GBM) - Uptake of CNTs into tumor combined with NIR photo thermal treatment ablates tumor (hyperthermia).  CNTs can transport chemotherapy drugs across the BBB and target drug payload to brain tumors. 
Blood Cancer (eg, Leukemia)
Daunorubicin-loaded CNTs can seek out and penetrate T cell leukemia cells. 
CNTs conjugated with paclitaxel (PTX) is expected to produce ten-fold higher PTX uptake by tumor.  See ablation procedure referenced previously, which also has application in the treatment of breast (and other) tumors. 
CNTs may be triple functionalized with an anticancer drug (eg, doxorubicin), a monoclonal antibody, and a fluorescent marker to enhance uptake of doxorubicin by the colon adenocarcinoma cell. 
Dendrimer- modified CNTs may be engineered for the efficient delivery of antisense c- myc oligonucleotide (as ODN) into liver cancer cells, for maximal transfection efficiencies and inhibition effects on tumor cells. 
Lymph Node Metastasis
CNTs can be decorated with metallic particles, loaded with drug (eg, gemcitabine), and pass through a magnetic field for superior inhibition of lymph node metastasis and pancreatic cancer tumors. 
CNTs conjugated with siRNA and a peptide, combined with the photothermal ablation therapy referenced previously can significantly enhance antitumor activity without causing toxicity to other organs. 
Crossing the BBB
CNTs can carry drug payloads across the blood brain barrier. Research has proven this based upon the drug crossing the barrier solely dependent on the physicochemical properties of CNTs, independent of the drug loaded inside.  MGMR shares these properties with the tested CNTs, while differentiating itself with safety data.
Ritonavir (large molecule HIV drug) has been successfully transported across the BBB using TAT peptide - conjugated nanoparticles (many times the diameter of MGMR’s 10- to 15-nm diameter) and delivered an 800-fold higher level of the drug in the brain when compared to free drug uptake. 
Nanoparticles averaging 150 to 200 nm in diameter (MGMR averages only 10 to 15 nm) conjugated with SynB peptide have been shown to be membrane-penetrable, cross the BBB, and deliver a drug to its target site in the brain. 
CNTs may be safely used to deliver and control the dose of acetylcholine into the brain for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (in this study transport to the brain was via the olfactory nerve axons rather than across the BBB). 
Uptake of Rivastigmine (used to treat dementia associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease) by the brain when transported by nanoparticles many times the diameter of MGMR (PnBCA) was almost 4x greater when compared to the free drug. [15,16]
Limited delivery of CNS of drugs, like L-Dopa (Levodopa), due to the BBB can be remedied by packing drug into CNTs, which can transport the drug across the BBB.  CNTs can evade the traditional degradation lines and target specific central nervous system structures which reduces systemic side effects. 
MGMR as Biosensor in Custom Transdermal Patch System
Not only may transdermal delivery be more efficient with MGMR, timing and dosage can be customized based on patient need by using MGMR to extract molecules (like analytes) through the skin. For example, MGMR may enable glucose monitoring by extracting interstitial fluid using electrical or ultrasonic means 
MGMR may be able to be vertically aligned and adapted as a hollow micro needle that can penetrate the skin and structurally support high flow rates of at least 600µl per min per needle 
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 J. Ren, S. Shen, D. Want et al., “The targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to brain glioma by PEGylated oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with angiopep-2”, Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 3324-3333, 2012
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 K.S. Rao, M.K. Reddy, J. L. Horning, and V. Labhasetwar, “TAT-conjugated nanoparticles for the CNS delivery of anti-HIV drugs,” Biomaterials, vol. 29, no. 33, pp. 4429-4438, 2008.
 Rao, et al., 2008
 X.H. Tian, F. Wei, T.X. Wang et al, “In vitro and in vivo studies on gelatin-siloxane nanoparticles conjugated with SynB peptide to increase drug delivery to the brain,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 1031-1041, 2012.
 Z. Yang et al., “Pharmacological and toxicological target organelles and safe use of single-walled carbon nanotubes as drug carriers in treating alzheimer’s disease”, Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med., 6 (2010) 427-441
 J. Kreuter et al., “Apolipoprotein-mediated transport of nanoparticle-bound drugs across the blood-brain barrier”, J Drug Target., 10 (2002) 317-325
 S.A. Joshi, S.S. Cavhan and K.K. Sawant, “Rivastigmine-loaded PLGA and PBCA nanoparticles: preparation, optimization, characterization, in vitro and pharmacodynamic studies”, Eur J Pharm Biopharm., 76 (2010) 189-199
 Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2013 Jan; 4(1): (P) 694
 Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2013 Jan; 4(1): (P) 694
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