CNT Literature

Scientific Achievements Using Traditional CNT's

Research using traditional CNTs in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, and numerous cancers demonstrates the future of engineering nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery to cells and tissues. With the introduction of MGMR, we can now apply this technology safely and more effectively to enable research in developing new drug delivery mechanisms. The following are a few examples.

Pancreatic Cancer

CNTs engineered as a nano-carrier for siRNA and drug delivery into pancreatic cancer cells. [1]

Brain Cancer (eg, GBM)

Brain Cancer (eg, GBM) - Uptake of CNTs into tumor combined with NIR photo thermal treatment ablates tumor (hyperthermia). [2] CNTs can transport chemotherapy drugs across the BBB and target drug payload to brain tumors. [3]

Blood Cancer (eg, Leukemia)

Daunorubicin-loaded CNTs can seek out and penetrate T cell leukemia cells. [4]

Breast Cancer

CNTs conjugated with paclitaxel (PTX) is expected to produce ten-fold higher PTX uptake by tumor. [5] See ablation procedure referenced previously, which also has application in the treatment of breast (and other) tumors. [6]

Colon Cancer

CNTs may be triple functionalized with an anticancer drug (eg, doxorubicin), a monoclonal antibody, and a fluorescent marker to enhance uptake of doxorubicin by the colon adenocarcinoma cell. [7]

Liver Cancer

Dendrimer- modified CNTs may be engineered for the efficient delivery of antisense c- myc oligonucleotide (as ODN) into liver cancer cells, for maximal transfection efficiencies and inhibition effects on tumor cells. [8]

Lymph Node Metastasis

CNTs can be decorated with metallic particles, loaded with drug (eg, gemcitabine), and pass through a magnetic field for superior inhibition of lymph node metastasis and pancreatic cancer tumors. [9]

Prostate Cancer

CNTs conjugated with siRNA and a peptide, combined with the photothermal ablation therapy referenced previously can significantly enhance antitumor activity without causing toxicity to other organs. [10]

Crossing the BBB

CNTs can carry drug payloads across the blood brain barrier. Research has proven this based upon the drug crossing the barrier solely dependent on the physicochemical properties of CNTs, independent of the drug loaded inside. [11] MGMR shares these properties with the tested CNTs, while differentiating itself with safety data.

Ritonavir (large molecule HIV drug) has been successfully transported across the BBB using TAT peptide - conjugated nanoparticles (many times the diameter of MGMR’s 12 to 14 nm diameter) and delivered an 800-fold higher level of the drug in the brain when compared to free drug uptake. [12]

Nanoparticles averaging 150 to 200 nm in diameter (MGMR averages only 12 to 14 nm) conjugated with SynB peptide have been shown to be membrane-penetrable, cross the BBB, and deliver a drug to its target site in the brain. [13]

Alzheimer’s Disease

CNTs may be safely used to deliver and control the dose of acetylcholine into the brain for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (in this study transport to the brain was via the olfactory nerve axons rather than across the BBB). [14]

Uptake of Rivastigmine (used to treat dementia associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease) by the brain when transported by nanoparticles many times the diameter of MGMR (PnBCA) was almost 4x greater when compared to the free drug. [15,16]

Parkinson’s Disease

Limited delivery of CNS of drugs, like L-Dopa (Levodopa), due to the BBB can be remedied by packing drug into CNTs, which can transport the drug across the BBB. [17] CNTs can evade the traditional degradation lines and target specific central nervous system structures which reduces systemic side effects. [18]

MGMR as Biosensor in Custom Transdermal Patch System

Not only may transdermal delivery be more efficient with MGMR, timing and dosage can be customized based on patient need by using MGMR to extract molecules (like analytes) through the skin. For example, MGMR may enable glucose monitoring by extracting interstitial fluid using electrical or ultrasonic means [19]

Microneedle Systems

MGMR may be able to be vertically aligned and adapted as a hollow micro needle that can penetrate the skin and structurally support high flow rates of at least 600µl per min per needle [20]

[1] T. Anderson, R. Hu, C. Yang, H. S. Yoon, K-T Yong, “Pancreatic cancer gene therapy using an siRNA-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes nanoplex”, Biomater. Sci., advance article, DOI: 10.1039/C4BM00019F, 2014,

[2] C.-H. Wang, S.-H. Chiou, C.-P. Chou, Y.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Huang, and C.-A. Peng, “Photothermolysis of glioblastoma stem-like cells targeted by carbon nanotubes conjugated with CD133 monoclonal antibody,” Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 69-79, 2011.

[3] J. Ren, S. Shen, D. Want et al., “The targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to brain glioma by PEGylated oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with angiopep-2”, Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 3324-3333, 2012

[4] S.M. Taghdisi, P. Lavaee, M. Ramezani, and K. Abnous, “Reversible targeting and controlled release delivery of daunorubicin to cancer cells by aptamer-wrapped carbon nanotubes,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 200-206, 2011.

[5] Z. Liu, K. Chen, C. Davis et al., “Drug delivery with carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer treatment,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 16, pp. 6652-6660, 2008.

[6] B. Panchapakesan, S. Lu, K. Sivakumar, K. Teker, G. Cesarone, and E. Wickstrom, “Single-wall carbon nanotube nanobomb agents for killing breast cancer cells,” Nanobiotechnology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 133-139, 2005.

[7] E. Heister, V. Neves, C. Tilmaciu et al., “Triple functionalisation of single-walled carbon nanotubes with doxorubicin, a monotherapy,” Carbon, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 2152-2160, 2009.

[8] B. Pan, D. Cui, P. Xu et al., “Synthesis and characterization of polyamidoamine dendrimer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application in gene delivery systems,” Nanotechnology, vol. 20, no. 12, Article ID 125101, pp. 1-9, 2009.

[9] F. Yang, C. Jin, D. Yang et al., “Magnetic functionalised carbon nanotubes as drug vehicles for cancer lymph node metastasis treatment,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1873-1882, 2011.

[10] L. Wang, J. Shi, H. Zhang et al., “Synergistic anticancer effect of RNAi and photothermal therapy mediated by functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Biomaterials, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 262-274, 2013.

[11] K.S. Rao, M.K. Reddy, J. L. Horning, and V. Labhasetwar, “TAT-conjugated nanoparticles for the CNS delivery of anti-HIV drugs,” Biomaterials, vol. 29, no. 33, pp. 4429-4438, 2008.

[12] Rao, et al., 2008

[13] X.H. Tian, F. Wei, T.X. Wang et al, “In vitro and in vivo studies on gelatin-siloxane nanoparticles conjugated with SynB peptide to increase drug delivery to the brain,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 1031-1041, 2012.

[14] Z. Yang et al., “Pharmacological and toxicological target organelles and safe use of single-walled carbon nanotubes as drug carriers in treating alzheimer’s disease”, Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med., 6 (2010) 427-441

[15] J. Kreuter et al., “Apolipoprotein-mediated transport of nanoparticle-bound drugs across the blood-brain barrier”, J Drug Target., 10 (2002) 317-325

[16] S.A. Joshi, S.S. Cavhan and K.K. Sawant, “Rivastigmine-loaded PLGA and PBCA nanoparticles: preparation, optimization, characterization, in vitro and pharmacodynamic studies”, Eur J Pharm Biopharm., 76 (2010) 189-199

[17] Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2013 Jan; 4(1): (P) 694

[18] Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2013 Jan; 4(1): (P) 694

[19] A. Sieg, R.H. Guy and M.B. Delgado-Charro, “Noninvasive and minimally invasive methods for transdermal glucose monitoring”, Diabetes Technol Ther 2005, 7:174-197. [PubMed: 15738715]

[20] B. J. Lyon, A. I. Aria and M. Gharib, “Feasibility study of carbon nanotube microneedles for rapid transdermal drug delivery”, Mater. Res. Soc. Smp. Proc. Vol. 1569, DOI: 10.1557/opl.2013.803